Significant Attributes of “The Road Not Taken”

Meaningful Interpretations of Robert Frost’s “The Road Not Taken”

The interesting part of the poem is the occurrence of two alternatives or courses. The poet had to choose one route and explore the dimensions of his preference. The poet was definite about the impracticality of journeying two paths simultaneously. He meditated considerably upon the selection of his pathway. Two apparently similar routes were inviting the poet to steer and search his destiny through. The continuation of the cruise and the juxtaposition of the two roads are the striking points of the poem. The poet gazed and gauged the extension and prospect of the first road unless it obscured into the secrecy of the brushwood.

His picking was not strictly conditioned by a contrast of distinctive dissimilarities. Rather his selection was fashioned by a parallel of similitude. The poet could not halt and so he directed his ride towards the other walkway since it appealed and assured greater “claims”. He touched upon the concurrence of the nearly equivalent ragged terrain of two tracks. However, he had to advance. The poet postponed the idea of unraveling the mysteries of the discarded pathway on another occasion. The attractive quality of the poem is the enduring march. Thus he reasoned out that he cannot but return to the original position and restart his trip. His providence will lead him to a yet further and far-flung flight. The chief characteristic of the poem is the passage relative to time and space.

The poet would reflect in retrospect that the unusual and exceptional road he had chosen was responsible for “all the difference.” The ambiguity of the phrase “one less traveled” is prominent since it is at variance with the earlier “worn them really about the same.” Two different courses are pregnant with divergent possibilities and outcomes although the poet exclaimed that he opted for the special one.

Reference

Frost, R. (1996). The road not taken. Early Frost. Edison, NJ: Castle Books, 130.

 

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Walking As a Psychological Engagement with the Environment

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In the poem “Walking,” the poet Thomas Traherne referred to the demand of odysseys being accompanied by heedful observation. We have to exert our conscious and considerate alertness to seize and appreciate the wonders of the land. During our excursions we should be cognizant of visual phenomena and their heavenly enchantment rather than merely employing physical mechanisms such as those of our eyes or legs to realize the significance of walking. The mobility of wheels of vehicles does not guarantee any mental satisfaction out of the spectacle because such soulless locomotion is a handicap to arresting the color and essence of natural bounty. Similarly lifeless dolls fail to absorb the beautiful sky and the cheerful environment on account of their denseness and lack of vigilance. The insistence on the awakening and enlivening of the spiritual ecstasy in the context of ambulation is the theme of this poem.

Walking must be an aesthetic experience in association with natural endowment as well as a contemplative adventure through the meadows, corn fields, greens and springs. The poet urged us to capture the charm and scent of flower and be grateful to its Creator. The poet advised us to be as busy as bees, wandering among bushes and obtaining the nectar, to the extent of extreme mental tiredness. The dynamism and companionship with the surrounding is all the more important. A sense of psychic attachment is what is needed for.

The sun or stars are abundant source of knowledge and claim our watchful attention and the small child is fully contented with the fecundity offered by leaves and trees. Indeed the life of a man becomes truly complete when he comes across the most delighting scene along the course of his destination. Thus our mindful tread could possibly make us well-informed and appreciative of nature.

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THE FINANCIAL SETTING OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY

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The Financial Milieu of For-Profit, Not-For-Profit and Government Clinics.

The health care services and facilities in America are accessed through four categories of establishments so far as the nature of ownership and the management discipline is concerned. They are, according to the Health Care Organization, 2006, the Not-for-profit Organizations which may be Business-Oriented or Non-business-Oriented Organizations, For-Profit Health Care Organizations and Government Financed Health Care Units (Cleverley, Song and Cleverley, 2010, p. 8). The four-tier framework of health care industry operates in accordance with the individual enterprise’s catalog of financial accounts and in-house policy formulations “different health care organizations require slightly different sets of financial statements” (Cleverley, Song and Cleverley, 2010, p. 8).

The criterion of ownership offers a significantly diagnostic range to discuss the positive points of the public and private domains of health care industry. The public health maintenance system functions through agreements which allocates the power among the client’s and service provider’s respective obligations and stipulates the pre-requisites and benefits of the expressions of such pacts. This often makes the task of the identification of the managerial role, databases and inspirational practices that are operational within the administrative relations of public health care establishments “public regulations and procedures may or may not explicitly establish clear lines of authority, information requirements and motivations for performance” (Savedoff, 2011, p. 22).

Top ten managerial directors of not-for profit health safeguarding institutes  had been invited to participate in a dialogue in July-August 2008 to elucidate the part played by the efficiency of the supervisory board  in the perfection of organizational accomplishment. The financial well being of health care production relied on the five basic perspectives and the consequent articulation and application of these policy resolutions “the most important aspects of their jobs…the key factors contributing to organizational success” (Kauffman and Goldstein, 2008, p. 1). They are broadly, good rapport with the board, a responsible and hard-wearing management, an estimable, comprehensive outline for plan of action, proper fulfillment of the plan and developing a sense of worthiness.

Not-for-profit Organizations which share a business affiliation and interest in order to maintain their repute of business resilience represent those concerns which belong to the public as a whole rather than solely held by private investors and/or directed to accumulate financial gains “Not-for-profit HCOs must be run as a business, however, in order to ensure their long-term financial viability” (Cleverley, Song and Cleverley, 2010, p. 8). Ascension Healthcare falls under the category of Not-for-profit Business-Oriented Firm. Not-for-profit Health Organizations without business making motivations such as the American Red Cross and the American Cancer Society provide free medical relief and health related assistance

One of the chief rewards that Not-for-profit Organizations gets is its exclusion from the disbursement of federal income duties and property levies. Of course, the organizations need to be socially more responsible and professionally more committed in the rendering of crucial health care amenities “nonprofit organizations are expected to provide a public benefit…more uncompensated care” (Cleverley, Song and Cleverley, 2010, p. 8). Further, nonprofit organizations are approved of tax-free assistance, contributions and arrears. The estimates of equity capital are low in the case of nonprofit ventures. The downside that this group of companies suffers from is the restricted availability of funds. These corporations cannot collect proceeds from stock markets.

The HCA, Inc is the privately run health care conglomerate that is primarily motivated to maximize monetary earnings. It has nearly 189 auxiliary sanatoriums and health-linked clinics operating in 23 states. The goals of for-profit health maintenance centers include considering the profitability of the business and promoting the interests of the stakeholders “Investor owned firms are owned by risk-based equity investors…to maximize shareholder wealth” (Cleverley, Song and Cleverley, 2010, p. 9). The incomes of investor-oriented health care units are liable to excises by federal assessment and also in accordance with the shareholders’ proportion. Professional Corporations or Professional Associations are generally managed by professional people from medical involvement like doctors. Sole proprietorship is the rights of a medical firm owned by one person and is relatively free from the complications of lawmaking intervention, revenue distribution although it suffers from the inadequacy of raising wealth and shouldering entire accountability. Partnership concerns could be problematic owing to differences in the decisions of partners. Limited Partnership could be burdensome for one of the partners must bear the endless responsibility for company’s overall financial damages (Cleverley, Song and Cleverley, 2010, p. 9). Limited Liability Institution enjoys some kind of taxation relaxation and also the general partner’s annoyance is to some extent abated within this directorial framework. Two more examples of investor-owned hospitals are Hospital Corporation of America and Psychiatric Solutions.

Government health bodies are the public hospitals and medical research stations where people are treated free of cost because central or provincial municipal corporations run the government setups with funds at their disposal. The profits derived from Public benefit organizations generally get deposited at public funds or trusts. The former health care county sponsored clinic, Nassau County Medical Center in New York changed hands in 1999, emerging as a public benefit enterprise (Cleverley, Song and Cleverley, 2010, p. 9). National Cancer Institute and National Eye Institute are the other governmental health care bodies.

Thus we find that the health care industry as a wholly, encompassing the three kinds of financial background in which the system works, is essentially devoted to the recovery and rehabilitation of the suffering section. The strategies and the implementation of the policies vary with respect to the typical financial investment and accrual of the incomes from the turnover of the business initiative.

References

Cleverley, W., Song, P., & Cleverley, J. (2010). Essentials of health care finance. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Kaufman, K., & Goldstein, L. (2008). Leadership and successful financial performance in healthcare. Bulletin of the National Center for Healthcare Leadership, 8-22.

Savedoff, W. D. (2011). Governance in the health sector: a strategy for measuring determinants and performance.

 

The Metamorphosis of the New World Economic System of Wealth

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The discussion of the nature of feudalism and capitalism that was operational in Latin American and Caribbean throughout the colonial era is, according to Steve Stern, a popular and a perpetual topic in the said continent. However, Stern seems to be rather analytical of Immanuel Wallerstein’s exaggerated account of the role of “world system” in briefing the historical courses of Latin America(Stern, 1988, p 1).He was doubtful of Wallerstein’s theoretical construction of capitalist world-economy unraveling the complications of feudalism. Stern’s approach stands equidistant between the dismissal of the function of the world system and that of Wallersteins. Stern challenges Wallerstein’s paradigm being disproportionate to the experiential facts by advancing his “critical test” (Wallerstein, 1988, p 873) formula to invalidate Wallerstein’s thesis and forwards his own model befitting two concrete circumstances of silver mining and sugar plantation.

Wallerstein implied by world-economy, characteristic of Europe and germinating in the dawn of the sixteenth century, as a distinct social order and certainly as an adjunct of the modern world-system. This global economic realm is liberated off its political accessories and political restrictions. The world-economy is a conglomerate bound by economic affiliations, cultural attachments and political articulations, “It is a world-economy because the basic linkage between the parts of the system is economic” (Wallerstein, 2011, p 15).

The new world-economy has succeeded to retain its economic purity simultaneously shunning its political extravagance by dint of the strategies of capitalist expansion aided by technological revolution and ensured by scientific innovations, “the techniques of modern capitalism and the technology of modern science…enabled this world-economy to thrive….without the emergence of a unified political structure” (Wallerstein, 2011, p 16)

Stern studied the labor relations (mita) on Potosi mines in three successive stages. Stage 1 elaborates the stipulations associated with work and the expertise which were predominantly determined and governed by Indians, described as encomienda. Stage 2 records a further reinforcement of mita contractual obligations of labor relations and conditions. Stage 3 observed deterioration in labor availability and discipline. During this period, the Indians put up an organized movement to alter the labor category into sharecropping workers. The Modern World-System is faced with a changing scenario where maintenance and management of manpower demand higher expenses since skilled labor cannot directly be obtained. The mine proprietors acknowledged a share of their products to the volunteer laborers due to the fall in the value of silver worldwide, as Modern World-System argues, as a part of their strategy to alleviate the menace associated with the formation and accrual of funds, “a mode of risk- minimization” (Wallerstein, 1988, p 873). According to Stern, the mine entrepreneurs revitalized the glorious prospect of silver mining by fiercely augmenting the work load upon the mitayo laborers.

Wallerstein maintained that workers’ opposition to unbridled exploitation has been a persistent feature of capitalism-dominated New World Economy. The mine owners opted to enforce compulsion to restrain workers’ unrest and to deal with reducing labor accessibility, probably generated by increasing tolls of death due to plagues.

The usage of the concept of commodity frontier by Jason Moore encompasses Wallerstein’s world system application of commodity chain, which is briefly an integrated apparatus of the involved toil and making methodologies being condensed into a manufactured output. The world system orientation comprehends the diverse modes and contours of capitalist advancement in diverse social contexts.

The intensity of capitalist expansion is regulated by the correlation and interdependence of global economic patterns and provincial bionetwork prototypes. Several commodity frontiers, for example sugar plantation, require a number of fundamental ingredients that are not readily accessible at the manufacturing site. The reason, the capitalist production machinery gets bifurcated into favorable raw materials reachable places, thus distributing and disbursing the locales and burden of work schedules apiece. Some vital commodity frontiers, like sugar, silver and tobacco,  need highly intensive manual labor force and basic raw materials supplying. These prerequisites rely heavily on the region’s natural resources meaning an unremitting and recurrent consumption and voluminous encroaching on the environmental assets.

The escalation of free enterprise and the rise and fall of private ownership directly and inevitably lead to environmental degradation. Some of the dire consequences of capitalist enlargement are the ecological imbalance and biological threats created by the contamination of natural elements like air, water, soil and forest reserves.

“Ecological exhaustion at the point of production was complemented by an environmentally destructive multiplier effect” (Moore, 413).

Sugar plantation in Madeira exacted a good deal of forest clearing. Extensive deforestation was in slow progress, so woods were put to fire causing wildlife annihilation, and as Madeira experienced scanty precipitation, vast irrigation projects had to be undertaken. Madeira became the chief sugar producing site in the fifteenth century. However, soil degradation caused a replacement in the sugar producing units to Brazil in the sixteenth century and in the succeeding century to Caribbean islands.

During the second half of the sixteenth century, America or the New World became the pivotal locale of sugar industry. It is no wonder that torrential rainfall with no immediate dearth of extensive irrigation works made sugar commerce a highly lucrative venture in the New World.

The financial outcomes of sugar industry incorporated over exploitation of land and manpower. The proprietors were most often bankrupt due to heavy investments in the distilling processes and infrastructure installations. Manufacture of sugar fell short of demands. As a result, fertile soils were invaded anew to set up sugar plants meaning thereby an additional marketing of manpower and inputs and donations. “American planters were yoked to an ‘international debt peonage’ reminiscent of early modern Eastern Europe” (Wallerstein, 1979:41). “Financiers, not planters were the primary beneficiaries of sugar frontier complex” (Moore, 2000, p 419).

The forest reserves served as the backbone of sugar industry in the New World. Forest felling was a necessary part of sugar plantation. The factory sheds needed spatial coverage and woods served as the fuel to carry out the distillation processes. Sugar cultivation thus swallowed extensive forest areas. Feral hogs, monkeys, turtles became extinct (Moor, 2000, p 421).

There is no denying the fact as to the serious impact of silver extraction on the ecological well-being. This section will consider and review the environmental devastation as a result of mining trade. The onset of capitalism begun with mining enterprises. The repositioning of silver excavation marked the beginning of New World Economy from Europe to Potosi during 1540’s. Sugar and silver were the primary commodity frontiers that globalized the rapid diversification of mining business.  The monetary gains and wealth accumulation were given utmost importance at the expense of ecological hazards. Between 1460 and 1530, the silver quarry ventures recorded a giant multiplication of output recovery.

The powerful rationale presented by the opponents of mining projects is centered around the issue of the atmospheric pollution. This is established by the soil attrition, forest denuding and animals and aquatic organism destruction. The end results of silver extraction were accompanied with toxic lead outbursts thus contaminating the rivers and watercourses. Its consequences on the workers’ physiology were equally fatal.

The New World-Economy in the modern era is the embodiment of a globalized and enlightened economic order. The present picture assures of a mixed blessing of promising economic gains and international financial crisis because of its global connections and networks, affecting every corner of its dominion universally.

References

Moore, J. W. (2000). Sugar and the expansion of the early modern world-economy: Commodity frontiers, ecological transformation, and industrialization. Review (Fernand Brailed Center), 23(3) 409-433.

Moore, J. W. (2007). Silver, ecology, and the origins of the modern world, 1450–1640. In McNeil, J. R., Martinez-Alier, J., & Hornborg, A. (Eds.), Rethinking Environmental History: World-System History and Global Environmental Change, (123-42). New York: AltaMira Press.

Stern, S. J. (1988). Feudalism, capitalism, and the world-system in the perspective of Latin America and the Caribbean. The American Historical Review, 93(4), 829-872.

Wallerstein, I. (1988). Feudalism, capitalism, and the world-system in the perspective of Latin America and the Caribbean: Comments on Stern’s critical tests. The American Historical Review, 93(4), 873-885.

Wallerstein, I. (2011). The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century, With a New Prologue (Vol. 1). University of California Pr.

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Comparative Analysis of Vietnam Policies of Presidents Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon
 
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